Processing of Lead Halide Perovskite Thin Films Studied with In-Situ Real-Time X-ray Scattering

Dounya Barrit, Ming-Chun Tang, Rahim Munir, Ruipeng Li, Kui Zhao, Detlef-M. Smilgies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lead halide perovskites have been of paramount interest for solution-processable solar cells, reaching power conversion efficiencies larger than 25%. In this spotlight, we will provide a systematic overview of the influence of different solution-based processing routes of lead halide perovskites on their phase transformation and conversion as revealed through in-situ X-ray-scattering experiments. These experiments were performed in conditions closely mimicking thin film processing methods and conditions used for thin film solar cell device fabrication and therefore provide critical information about the mechanism of the phase transformation, its onset, the kinetics, as well as the emergence and disappearance of various (meso)phases along the way. The measurements capture the overall solidification and conversion process of lead halide perovskite inks into solid films via so-called one-step and two-step spin-coating processes as well as blade coating and hot casting. Processing routes are applied to films based on basic components as well as mixtures of different anions and cations, solvents, and antisolvents, all of which deeply affect the thin film microstructure and morphology of the light-absorbing semiconductor and associated solar cell devices.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
StatePublished - May 31 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-06-03
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): OSR-CARF URF/1/3079-33-01
Acknowledgements: This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, grant no. 61974085, as well as the KAUST Office of Sponsored Research, award no. OSR-CARF URF/1/3079-33-01. Part of this research was performed at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), which is funded by the National Science Foundation, award DMR-1332208. Additional funding for this work was received from the Canada First Research Excellence Fund (CFREF).
We thank Kang Wei Chou (KAUST) for the initial development of the in-situ spin coater and Gaurav Giri (Stanford University) for his important contributions to the development of the in-situ blade coating setup. R.M. thanks the Canada First Research Excellence Fund (CFREF) for a postdoctoral fellowship. We appreciate the great working conditions at former beamline D1 and the excellent support by the CHESS staff. We thank Aram Amassian and Thomas Anthopoulos (KAUST) for their support and guidance. D.-M.S. thanks Mark Poliks (Binghamton University) for his support.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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