Process-property correlations in laser-induced graphene electrodes for electrochemical sensing

Arne Behrent, Christian Griesche, Paul Sippel, Antje J. Baeumner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


AbstractLaser-induced graphene (LIG) has emerged as a promising electrode material for electrochemical point-of-care diagnostics. LIG offers a large specific surface area and excellent electron transfer at low-cost in a binder-free and rapid fabrication process that lends itself well to mass production outside of the cleanroom. Various LIG micromorphologies can be generated when altering the energy input parameters, and it was investigated here which impact this has on their electroanalytical characteristics and performance. Energy input is well controlled by the laser power, scribing speed, and laser pulse density. Once the threshold of required energy input is reached a broad spectrum of conditions leads to LIG with micromorphologies ranging from delicate irregular brush structures obtained at fast, high energy input, to smoother and more wall like albeit still porous materials. Only a fraction of these LIG structures provided high conductance which is required for appropriate electroanalytical performance. Here, it was found that low, frequent energy input provided the best electroanalytical material, i.e., low levels of power and speed in combination with high spatial pulse density. For example, the sensitivity for the reduction of K3[Fe(CN)6] was increased almost 2-fold by changing fabrication parameters from 60% power and 100% speed to 1% power and 10% speed. These general findings can be translated to any LIG fabrication process independent of devices used. The simple fabrication process of LIG electrodes, their good electroanalytical performance as demonstrated here with a variety of (bio)analytically relevant molecules including ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, p-nitrophenol, and paracetamol, and possible application to biological samples make them ideal and inexpensive transducers for electrochemical (bio)sensors, with the potential to replace the screen-printed systems currently dominating in on-site sensors used. Graphical abstract
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMicrochimica Acta
Issue number5
StatePublished - Apr 7 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2021-06-23
Acknowledgements: Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. This work was supported in part by funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).
This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry


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