Post annealing performance evaluation of printable interdigital capacitive sensors by principal component analysis

Asif Iqbal Zia, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Paklam Yu, Ibrahim H. Al-Bahadly, Chinthaka Pasan Gooneratne, Jürgen Kosel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The surface roughness of thin-film gold electrodes induces instability in impedance spectroscopy measurements of capacitive interdigital printable sensors. Post-fabrication thermodynamic annealing was carried out at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 210 °C in a vacuum oven and the variation in surface morphology of thin-film gold electrodes was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Impedance spectra obtained at different temperatures were translated into equivalent circuit models by applying complex nonlinear least square curve-fitting algorithm. Principal component analysis was applied to deduce the classification of the parameters affected due to the annealing process and to evaluate the performance stability using mathematical model. Physics of the thermodynamic annealing was discussed based on the surface activation energies. The post anneal testing of the sensors validated the achieved stability in impedance measurement. © 2001-2012 IEEE.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3110-3118
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2015

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: This work was supported in part by the Higher Education Commission, Lahore, Pakistan, in part by the School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, and in part by the COMSATS University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was Dr. Ravinder S. Dahiya.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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