Porous Organic Cages

Xinchun Yang, Zakir Ullah, J Fraser Stoddart, Cafer T. Yavuz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


Porous organic cages (POCs) are a relatively new class of low-density crystalline materials that have emerged as a versatile platform for investigating molecular recognition, gas storage and separation, and proton conduction, with potential applications in the fields of porous liquids, highly permeable membranes, heterogeneous catalysis, and microreactors. In common with highly extended porous structures, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs), and porous organic polymers (POPs), POCs possess all of the advantages of highly specific surface areas, porosities, open pore channels, and tunable structures. In addition, they have discrete molecular structures and exhibit good to excellent solubilities in common solvents, enabling their solution dispersibility and processability─properties that are not readily available in the case of the well-established, insoluble, extended porous frameworks. Here, we present a critical review summarizing in detail recent progress and breakthroughs─especially during the past five years─of all the POCs while taking a close look at their strategic design, precise synthesis, including both irreversible bond-forming chemistry and dynamic covalent chemistry, advanced characterization, and diverse applications. We highlight representative POC examples in an attempt to gain some understanding of their structure-function relationships. We also discuss future challenges and opportunities in the design, synthesis, characterization, and application of POCs. We anticipate that this review will be useful to researchers working in this field when it comes to designing and developing new POCs with desired functions.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalChemical Reviews
StatePublished - Apr 6 2023

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-04-10
Acknowledgements: The work was supported by funds provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (22201294), the Joint Interdisciplinary Research Project of SIAT (E25427), and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). X.C. thanks to the Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Energy Materials for Carbon Neutrality for financial support. Z.U. thanks to the Priority Research Centers Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF 2020R1A6A1A03041954).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


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