Photogenerated amines and their use in the design of a positive-tone resist material based on electrophilic aromatic substitution

Stephen Matuszczak, James F. Cameron, Jean M.J. Fréchet*, C. Grant Wilson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


The photogeneration of an active amine within a cationically curable polymer coating can be used to design a novel positive-tone resist material. The resist is based on a copolymer containing 4-hydroxystyrene as well as 4-acetoxymethylstyrene units; when heated in the presence of an acid, this copolymer crosslinks through an electrophilic aromatic substitution process. Therefore, a small amount of 2-nitrobenzyl toluene-p-sulphonate, that decomposes upon heating to produce toluene sulphonic acid, is added to the resist along with a thermally stable but photoactive carbamate that liberates an amine upon irradiation. Exposure of a film of the resist to 254 nm UV radiation results in the formation of a latent image consisting of amine molecules dispersed within the polymer film. The latent image is 'fixed' by heating; this liberates acid, which is neutralized where amine has been formed, but causes crosslinking of the polymer by a cationic process in those areas of the film where no amine has been produced. This resist, based on an image-reversal concept applicable to numerous cationically activated resists, can be developed in aqueous base and shows a good sensitivity of ca. 19 mJ cm-2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1045-1050
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes


  • Image reversal
  • Microlithography
  • Photogenerated base
  • Resist

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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