The formation of nodes, stem elongation and the phenology of stunted Avicennia marina was examined in the Central Red Sea, where Avicennia marina is at the limit of its distribution range and submitted to extremely arid conditions with salinity above 38 psu and water temperature as high as 35° C. The annual node production was rather uniform among locations averaging 9.59 node y−1, which resulted in a plastocron interval, the interval in between production of two consecutive nodes along a stem, of 38 days. However, the internodal length varied significantly between locations, resulting in growth differences possibly reflecting the environmental conditions of locations. The reproductive cycle lasted for approximately 12 months, and was characterized by peak flowering and propagule development in November and January. These phenological observations provide a starting point for research and restoration programs on the ecology of mangroves in the Central Red Sea, while the plastochrone index reported here would allow calculations of the growth and production of the species from simple morphological measurements.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: The research reported in this paper was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We thank the Costal and Marine Resources core lab in KAUST Nabeel Alikunhi and Zenon Batang, as well as the Red Sea Research Centre Joao Curdia and Katherine Rowe for helping in the field. And we thank Ivan Gromhico, KAUST, for the artist work on Fig. 8. And the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for providing the weather data.