Outage Probability Analysis of FSO Links over Foggy Channel

Maged Abdullah Esmail, Habib Fathallah, Mohamed-Slim Alouini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Outdoor Free space optic (FSO) communication systems are sensitive to atmospheric impairments such as turbulence and fog, in addition to being subject to pointing errors. Fog is particularly severe because it induces an attenuation that may vary from few dBs up to few hundreds of dBs per kilometer. Pointing errors also distort the link alignment and cause signal fading. In this paper, we investigate and analyze the FSO systems performance under fog conditions and pointing errors in terms of outage probability. We then study the impact of several effective communication mitigation techniques that can improve the system performance including multi-hop, transmit laser selection (TLS) and hybrid RF/FSO transmission. Closed-form expressions for the outage probability are derived and practical and comprehensive numerical examples are suggested to assess the obtained results. We found that the FSO system has limited performance that prevents applying FSO in wireless microcells that have a 500 m minimum cell radius. The performance degrades more when pointing errors appear. Increasing the transmitted power can improve the performance under light to moderate fog. However, under thick and dense fog the improvement is negligible. Using mitigation techniques can play a major role in improving the range and outage probability.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 22 2017

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge the College of Engineering Research Center and Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University in Riyadh for the financial support to carry out the research work reported in this paper.


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