Orientation Heredity in The Transformation of Two-Dimensional Epitaxial Films

Xiangming Xu, Jasmin Smajic, Kuang-hui Li, Jung-Wook Min, Yongjiu Lei, Bambar Davaasuren, Xin He, Xixiang Zhang, Boon S. Ooi, Pedro M. F. J. Da Costa, Husam N. Alshareef

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Controlling the lattice orientation is significant for both two-dimensional (2D) vdW layered and non-layered film growth process. Here we report a unique and universal phenomena termed lattice orientation heredity (LOH). The LOH enables product films (including 2D layered materials) to inherit the lattice orientation from reactant films in a chemical conversion process, excluding the requirement on the substrate lattice order. We demonstrate the process universality by investigating the lattice transformations in the carbonization, nitridation, and sulfurization of epitaxial MoO2, ZnO, and In2O3 thin films. Their resultant compounds all inherit mono-oriented feature from their precursor oxides, including 2D vdW layered semiconductors (e.g., MoS2), metallic films (e.g., MXene-like Mo2C and MoN), wide bandgap semiconductors (e.g., hexagonal ZnS), and ferroelectric semiconductors (e.g., In2S3). Using LOH-grown MoN as a seeding layer, we achieved mono-oriented GaN on an amorphous quartz substrate. The LOH process is a universal strategy capable of growing epitaxial thin films (including 2D vdW layered materials) not only on single-crystalline but also the non-crystalline.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2105190
JournalAdvanced Materials
StatePublished - Nov 11 2021

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2021-11-16
Acknowledgements: H.N.A. guided the project. X.M.X. observed and confirmed the universal lattice orientation heredity phenomena. J.S. and X.M.X performed all the carbonization and nitridation of both MoO2 and MoS2 on Al2O3 and quartz substrates. X.M.X grew MoO2 using pulsed laser deposition, performed sulfurization of MoO2 ZnO and In2O3, also characterized all the relevant Raman, AFM, XRD 2 and  scan also the relevant stereographic projections calculation. K.L. grew the epitaxial ZnO and In2O3 using pulsed laser deposition. J.W. M. grew GaN film using their MBE and characterized the XRD of GaN film. K.L. and Y.L. performed the TEM and STEM characterization. B.D. characterized all the XRD Pole figures. X.H., X. X. Z., B. S. O., P. M. D. C. helped and guided the relevant experiments. H.N.A. and X.M.X. wrote the paper. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript. Research reported in this publication was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The authors thank Dr. Sergei Lopatin for his kindly help in STEM measurement. The authors also thank the meaningful discussion with and Dr. Mrinal K Hota and Dr. Hyunho Kim.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanical Engineering


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