Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have emerged as a powerful platform for bioelectronic communication, enabling various technologies including neuromorphic devices, stimulation elements, and biosensors. These devices leverage the ionic-electronic coupling of organic semiconductors, known as organic mixed ionic-electronic conductors (OMIECs), to transduce signals across biotic and abiotic interfaces or mimic biological functions. The efficiency and behavior of this ionic-electronic communication are material- and electrolyte-dependent; therefore, the utility of OECTs depends on our control over OMIECs within a particular environment. Here we critically review material design considerations for the next generation of mixed conductors for OECT applications. Recent advances and strategies toward high-performance p- and n-type OMIECs are summarized. Important topics, such as batch-to-batch variability, assessing stability, processing methodologies, and alternative material platforms, are also covered—areas rarely discussed within the OMIEC community. Challenges and opportunities related to these topics are discussed, offering a practical guide to designing the next generation of OMIECs for bioelectronic applications.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-07-17
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): OSR2019-CRG8-4086
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by US Office of Naval Research (ONR) Young Investigator Program (YIP) award N00014-20-1-2777, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under award OSR2019-CRG8-4086, and Sloan under award FG-2019-12046. Conceptualization, J.T. and J.R.; data duration, J.T. and D.M.; writing – original draft, J.T. and D.M.; writing – review & editing, J.T. D.M. and J.R.; visualization, J.T. D.M. and J.R.; supervision, J.R. The authors declare no competing interests.
This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.