Organic contaminants levels, distribution and risk assessment in Jeddah marine coastal zone sediments

I. Hatzianestis*, C. Parinos, S. Chourdaki, E. Plakidi, Y. Abualnaja, I. Hoteit, J. Churchill, D. Papageorgiou, V. P. Papadopoulos, Y. Alshehri, A. Pavlidou

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Herein, various organic contaminants were determined in surface sediments collected from the Jeddah coastal zone, Saudi Arabia, to assess their levels, origin and probable toxic effects on marine organisms. High hydrocarbons concentrations, indicative of an enhanced pollutant burden, were recorded in the Jeddah Lagoon (mean value 4100 mg/kg for total aliphatic hydrocarbons (∑AHC) and 5800 μg/kg for total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (∑PAH)), whereas mean values in Mena Jeddah were 258 mg/kg for ∑AHC and 615 μg/kg for ∑PAH. By using molecular diagnostic ratios/indices and applying Positive Matrix Factorization, petroleum related pollution seems to predominate in Jeddah lagoons, whereas carcinogenic contaminants of pyrolytic origin were dominant in Mena Jedda. Additionally, municipal wastewaters were identified as a major source of pollution in Jeddah lagoons. Comparison of the concentrations of individual PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls with sediment quality guidelines indicates that, despite their high total values, adverse biological effects are unlikely to occur.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number115926
JournalMarine pollution bulletin
StatePublished - Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • LΑΒs
  • PAH
  • PCBs
  • Red Sea
  • Risk assessment
  • Sediment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Pollution


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