In this paper, we develop and analyze an adaptive multiscale approach for heterogeneous problems in perforated domains. We consider commonly used model problems including the Laplace equation, the elasticity equation, and the Stokes system in perforated regions. In many applications, these problems have a multiscale nature arising because of the perforations, their geometries, the sizes of the perforations, and configurations. Typical modeling approaches extract average properties in each coarse region, that encapsulate many perforations, and formulate a coarse-grid problem. In some applications, the coarse-grid problem can have a different form from the fine-scale problem, e.g. the coarse-grid system corresponding to a Stokes system in perforated domains leads to Darcy equations on a coarse grid. In this paper, we present a general offline/online procedure, which can adequately and adaptively represent the local degrees of freedom and derive appropriate coarse-grid equations. Our approaches start with the offline procedure, which constructs multiscale basis functions in each coarse region and formulates coarse-grid equations. We presented the offline simulations without the analysis and adaptive procedures, which are needed for accurate and efficient simulations. The main contributions of this paper are (1) the rigorous analysis of the offline approach, (2) the development of the online procedures and their analysis, and (3) the development of adaptive strategies. We present an online procedure, which allows adaptively incorporating global information and is important for a fast convergence when combined with the adaptivity. We present online adaptive enrichment algorithms for the three model problems mentioned above. Our methodology allows adding and guides constructing new online multiscale basis functions adaptively in appropriate regions. We present the convergence analysis of the online adaptive enrichment algorithm for the Stokes system. In particular, we show that the online procedure has a rapid convergence with a rate related to the number of offline basis functions, and one can obtain fast convergence by a sufficient number of offline basis functions, which are computed in the offline stage. The convergence theory can also be applied to the Laplace equation and the elasticity equation. To illustrate the performance of our method, we present numerical results with both small and large perforations. We see that only a few (1 or 2) online iterations can significantly improve the offline solution.
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- finite element
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Mathematics