Numerical heat transfer of non-similar ternary hybrid nanofluid flow over linearly stretching surface

Saman Riaz, Muhammad F. Afzaal, Zhan Wang, Ahmed Jan, Umer Farooq*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


The primary objective of this research is to construct a 2D mathematical model to understand the heat transfer phenomena in a ternary hybrid nanofluid across a stretched surface. We endorsed viscous dissipation formulations in energy equations and the radiation impacts may also be precisely handled by using Rosseland approximation. Nanoparticles and their effects are also considered including (Formula presented.) (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) The equations used in the model are made nondimensional through non-similarity transformation. In addition, the local non-similarity approach is employed to convert non-similar partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. These equations can subsequently be solved using the bvp4c MATLAB tool. Key factors have been thoroughly mapped out in graphical form for easy comprehension. In a flow regime, increasing nanoparticle concentration, magnetic number, and Eckert number lowers heat transmission and raises the ternary hybrid nanofluid's temperature profile. The effective skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are tabulated concerning the aforementioned important factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNumerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Local non-similarity: Bvp4c
  • ternary hybrid nanofluid
  • Williamson fluid model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Numerical Analysis
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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