Novel Homozygous Variants of SLC13A5 Expand the Functional Heterogeneity of a Homogeneous Syndrome of Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy

Abdulaziz Alsemari*, Francisco J. Guzmán-Vega, Brian F. Meyer, Stefan T. Arold

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 25 (EIEE25) is a distinct type of neonatal epileptic encephalopathy caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC13A5 gene. SLC13A5 encodes a transmembrane sodium/citrate cotransporter required for regulating citrate entry into cells. Methods: Four families with recessively inherited epileptic encephalopathy were sequenced by clinically accredited laboratories using commercially available epilepsy gene panels. Patients were examined by a neurologist and were clinically diagnosed with infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Results: We present four families with global developmental delay, intellectual disability, and defective tooth development with four novel homozygous mutations in SLC13A5. The neurological examination showed spastic quadriplegia with increased deep tendon reflexes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed nonspecific signal abnormality of the bilateral hemispheric white matter. Despite similar clinical features, the conditions were based on different molecular mechanisms acting on SLC13A5 (abnormal splicing, large-scale deletions, and tandem-residue insertion). Conclusions: Our results extend the landscape of autosomal recessive inherited homozygous mutations in SLC13A5 that cause a distinctive syndrome of severe neonatal epileptic encephalopathy. Our observations confirm the homogeneity of epileptic encephalopathy and dental abnormalities as a distinct clinical marker for EIEE25 despite the heterogeneous functional and mutational background.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)68-72
Number of pages5
JournalPediatric Neurology
StatePublished - Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Inc.


  • Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy
  • Functional heterogeneity
  • Novel homozygous variants
  • SLC13 A

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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