Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is an attractive technique due to its ability to build high-resolution velocity models. Conventional amplitude-matching FWI approaches remain challenging because the simplified computational physics used does not fully represent all wave phenomena in the earth. Because the earth is attenuating, a sample-by-sample fitting of the amplitude may not be feasible in practice. We have developed a normalized nonzero-lag crosscorrelataion-based elastic FWI algorithm to maximize the similarity of the calculated and observed data. We use the first-order elastic-wave equation to simulate the propagation of seismic waves in the earth. Our proposed objective function emphasizes the matching of the phases of the events in the calculated and observed data, and thus, it is more immune to inaccuracies in the initial model and the difference between the true and modeled physics. The normalization term can compensate the energy loss in the far offsets because of geometric spreading and avoid a bias in estimation toward extreme values in the observed data. We develop a polynomial-type weighting function and evaluate an approach to determine the optimal time lag. We use a synthetic elastic Marmousi model and the BigSky field data set to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. To suppress the short-wavelength artifacts in the estimated S-wave velocity and noise in the field data, we apply a Laplacian regularization and a total variation constraint on the synthetic and field data examples, respectively.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: We thank J. Etgen and four anonymous reviewers for improving the quality of the paper. We thank B. Sun and Y. Choi for their helpful discussions. We thank KAUST for its support and specifically the seismic wave analysis group members for their valuable insights. For computer time, this research used the resources of the Supercomputing Laboratory at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. We thank Vecta Oil and Gas and especially B. Devault for the BigSky data and the helpful discussions.