Nondestructive Method for Mapping Metal Contact Diffusion in In2O3 Thin-Film Transistors

Olga Kryvchenkova*, Isam Abdullah, John Emyr Macdonald, Martin Elliott, Thomas D. Anthopoulos, Yen Hung Lin, Petar Igić, Karol Kalna, Richard J. Cobley

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The channel width-to-length ratio is an important transistor parameter for integrated circuit design. Contact diffusion into the channel during fabrication or operation alters the channel width and this important parameter. A novel methodology combining atomic force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) with self-consistent modeling is developed for the nondestructive detection of contact diffusion on active devices. Scans of the surface potential are modeled using physically based Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulations when the transistor terminals are grounded and under biased conditions. The simulations also incorporate the tip geometry to investigate its effect on the measurements due to electrostatic tip-sample interactions. The method is particularly useful for semiconductor- and metal-semiconductor interfaces where the potential contrast resulting from dopant diffusion is below that usually detectable with scanning probe microscopy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25631-25636
Number of pages6
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number38
StatePublished - Sep 28 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
IA thanks the Iraqi Cultural Attache for sponsorship and Salahaddin University for ongoing support. YHL and TDA are grateful to European Research Council (ERC) AMPRO project no. 280221 for financial support. OK would like to thank the Zienkiewicz Scholarship (Swansea University, UK) for financial support. The work was partially supported by EPSRC grant EP/K03099X/1.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 American Chemical Society.


  • AFM
  • InO
  • Kelvin probe
  • metal oxide transistors
  • solution processing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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