Natural Oils Enhance the Topical Delivery of Ketoconazole by Nanoemulgel for Fungal Infections

Irfan Ahmad, Ms Farheen, Ashish Kukreti, Obaid Afzal, Md Habban Akhter, Havagiray Chitme, Sharad Visht, Abdulmalik Saleh Alfawaz Altamimi, Manal A. Alossaimi, Ebtisam R. Alsulami, Mariusz Jaremko, Abdul-Hamid M. Emwas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Nanoemulgel (NEG) pharmaceutical formulations are gaining popularity because of their ability to serve both as a nanoemulsion and as a gel. These products are well-known for their ease of use, spreadability, controlled release, and ability to hydrate dry skin. Natural essential oils have been shown to promote the cutaneous permeability of topical formulations, enhancing medication safety and efficacy. Herein, we developed NEG for the enhanced permeation of ketoconazole against candidiasis using clove oil (clove-oil–NEG) or eucalyptus oil (eucalyptus-oil–NEG), using the gelling agents carbopol 943 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). We tested various excipients to increase the solubility of ketoconazole and formulate a nanoemulsion (NE). We measured the NE droplet particle size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and drug release. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of the optimized nanoemulsion formulation were characterized by techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The NEs were loaded into gels to form NEGs. NEGs were characterized for drug content, homogeneity, rheology, spreadability, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans, both in vitro and in vivo. Optimized ketoconazole NEG preparations consisted of either 15% clove oil or 20% eucalyptus oil. Droplet sizes in the optimized NEs were
Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - Jul 26 2023

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-07-31
Acknowledgements: The authors express their gratitude to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through the Small Research Group Project under grant no. RGP.01/370/43.


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