Nanoformulation-Based 1,2,3-Triazole Sulfonamides for Anti-Toxoplasma In Vitro Study

Fadwa M. Arafa, Heba Said, Doaa Osman, Nadjet Rezki, Mohamed R. Aouad, Mohamed Hagar, Mervat Osman, Bassma H. Elwakil, Mariusz Jaremko, Mona Mohamed Tolba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Toxoplasma gondii is deemed a successful parasite worldwide with a wide range of hosts. Currently, a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine serves as the first-line treatment; however, these drugs have serious adverse effects. Therefore, it is imperative to focus on new therapies that produce the desired effect with the lowest possible dose. The designation and synthesis of sulfonamide-1,2,3-triazole hybrids (3a–c) were performed to create hybrid frameworks. The newly synthesized compounds were loaded on chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) to form nanoformulations (3a.CNP, 3b.CNP, 3c.CNP) for further in vitro investigation as an anti-Toxoplasma treatment. The current study demonstrated that all examined compounds were active against T. gondii in vitro relative to the control drug, sulfadiazine. 3c.CNP showed the best impact against T. gondii with the lowest IC50 value of 3.64 µg/mL. Using light microscopy, it was found that Vero cells treated with the three nanoformulae showed remarkable morphological improvement, and tachyzoites were rarely seen in the treated cells. Moreover, scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies confirmed the efficacy of the prepared nanoformulae on the parasites. All of them caused parasite ultrastructural damage and altered morphology, suggesting a cytopathic effect and hence confirming their promising anti-Toxoplasma activity.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401
JournalTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 7 2023

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-09-06
Acknowledgements: This research received no external funding.


Dive into the research topics of 'Nanoformulation-Based 1,2,3-Triazole Sulfonamides for Anti-Toxoplasma In Vitro Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this