n-Dopants Based on Dimers of Benzimidazoline Radicals: Structures and Mechanism of Redox Reactions

Siyuan Zhang, Benjamin D. Naab, Evgheni V. Jucov, Sean Parkin, Eric G B Evans, Glenn L. Millhauser, Tatiana V. Timofeeva, Chad Risko, Jean-Luc Bredas, Zhenan Bao, Stephen Barlow, Seth R. Marder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Dimers of 2-substituted N,N'-dimethylbenzimidazoline radicals, (2-Y-DMBI)2 (Y=cyclohexyl (Cyc), ferrocenyl (Fc), ruthenocenyl (Rc)), have recently been reported as n-dopants for organic semiconductors. Here their structural and energetic characteristics are reported, along with the mechanisms by which they react with acceptors, A (PCBM, TIPS-pentacene), in solution. X-ray data and DFT calculations both indicate a longer C-C bond for (2-Cyc-DMBI)2 than (2-Fc-DMBI)2, yet DFT and ESR data show that the latter dissociates more readily due to stabilization of the radical by Fc. Depending on the energetics of dimer (D2) dissociation and of D2-to-A electron transfer, D2 reacts with A to form D+ and A- by either of two mechanisms, differing in whether the first step is endergonic dissociation or endergonic electron transfer. However, the D+/0.5D2 redox potentials-the effective reducing strengths of the dimers-vary little within the series (ca. -1.9V vs. FeCp2+/0) (Cp=cyclopentadienyl) due to cancelation of trends in the D+/0 potential and D2 dissociation energy. The implications of these findings for use of these dimers as n-dopants, and for future dopant design, are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10878-10885
Number of pages8
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Issue number30
StatePublished - Jun 18 2015

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'n-Dopants Based on Dimers of Benzimidazoline Radicals: Structures and Mechanism of Redox Reactions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this