Multiplexed sensing techniques for cardiovascular disease biomarkers - A review

Veerappan Mani*, Ceren Durmus, Walaa Khushaim, Daísy Camargo Ferreira, Suna Timur, Fabiana Arduini*, Khaled Nabil Salama*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death worldwide, taking 17.9 million lives each year. The rapid, sensitive, and accurate determination of cardiac biomarkers is vital for the timely diagnosis of CVDs. For accurate diagnosis, dependence on a single biomarker is unreliable because each one has also been linked to other diseases. To overcome this problem, the multiplexed determination of two or more markers has emerged as a promising alternative to single-marker analysis. Over the last 5 years, research interest in the development of biosensors for targeting multiple cardiac markers has increased. In this study, we critically reviewed the various multiplexed biosensing approaches reported during the last 5 years, categorizing them by signal readouts. Prospective detection configurations, capture probes, electrode design strategies, electrode types, nanomaterials, reporter tags, and assay types were reviewed, tabulated, and critically discussed. Then, their advantages and limitations were highlighted. For each category, we provided our perspective as well as the overall critical discussion. Lastly, we summarized potential commercial multiplexed cardiac biosensors and commented on the challenges and future prospects for such sensors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number114680
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
StatePublished - Nov 15 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported financially by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology ( KAUST ), Saudi Arabia. In addition, we acknowledge the funding from the KAUST smart health initiative.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.


  • Cardiac troponin
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Immunoassay
  • Multiple biomarker panel
  • Multiplexed
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Simultaneous detection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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