Multiple-diffusion flame synthesis of pure anatase and carbon-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles

Nasir Memon, Dalaver H. Anjum, Suk Ho Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


A multi-element diffusion flame burner (MEDB) is useful in the study of flame synthesis of nanomaterials. Here, the growth of pure anatase and carbon-coated titanium dioxide (TiO2) using an MEDB is demonstrated. Hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar) are utilized to establish the flame, whereas titanium tetraisopropoxide is used as the precursor for TiO2. The nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, with elemental mapping (of C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The growth of pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles occurs when Ar and H2 are used as the precursor carrier gas, while the growth of carbon-coated nanoparticles ensues when Ar and ethylene (C2H4) are used as the precursor carrier gas. A uniform coating of 3-5nm of carbon is observed around TiO2 particles. The growth of highly crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles is dependent on the gas flow rate of the precursor carrier and amorphous particles are observed at high flow rates. Carbon coating occurs only on crystalline nanoparticles, suggesting a possible growth mechanism of carbon-coated TiO2 nanoparticles. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1848-1856
Number of pages9
JournalCombustion and Flame
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2013

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Chemistry
  • Fuel Technology


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