Molecular Design Strategies toward Improvement of Charge Injection and Ionic Conduction in Organic Mixed Ionic–Electronic Conductors for Organic Electrochemical Transistors

Nadzeya A. Kukhta, Adam Marks, Christine K. Luscombe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Scopus citations


Expanding the toolbox of the biology and electronics mutual conjunction is a primary aim of bioelectronics. The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) has undeniably become a predominant device for mixed conduction materials, offering impressive transconduction properties alongside a relatively simple device architecture. In this review, we focus on the discussion of recent material developments in the area of mixed conductors for bioelectronic applications by means of thorough structure–property investigation and analysis of current challenges. Fundamental operation principles of the OECT are revisited, and characterization methods are highlighted. Current bioelectronic applications of organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors (OMIECs) are underlined. Challenges in the performance and operational stability of OECT channel materials as well as potential strategies for mitigating them, are discussed. This is further expanded to sketch a synopsis of the history of mixed conduction materials for both p- and n-type channel operation, detailing the synthetic challenges and milestones which have been overcome to frequently produce higher performing OECT devices. The cumulative work of multiple research groups is summarized, and synthetic design strategies are extracted to present a series of design principles that can be utilized to drive figure-of-merit performance values even further for future OMIEC materials.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalChemical Reviews
StatePublished - Dec 13 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2021-12-16
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): OSR-2018-CRG/CCF-3079, OSR-2018-CRG7-3749, OSR-2019-CRG8-4086
Acknowledgements: Work by N.A.K. was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES) under award no. DE-SC0020046. A.M. acknowledges financial support from KAUST, including Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) awards nos. OSR-2018-CRG/CCF-3079, OSR-2019-CRG8-4086, and OSR-2018-CRG7-3749. A.M. also acknowledges funding from ERC Synergy grant SC2 (610115), the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 952911, project BOOSTER and grant agreement no. 862474, project RoLA-FLEX, as well as EPSRC Project EP/T026219/1. C.K.L. acknowledges support by National Science Foundation (NSF), Division of Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental and Transport Systems (CBET) under award 1922259.
This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


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