Microstructure-based Monte Carlo simulation of Ca2+ dynamics evoking cardiac calcium channel inactivation

Toshihiro Kawazu, Shingo Murakami, Satomi Adachi-Akahane, Ian Findlay, Rachid Ait-Haddou, Yoshihisa Kurachi, Taishin Nomura*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ca2+ dynamics underlying cardiac excitation-contraction coupling are essential for heart functions. In this study, we constructed microstructure-based models of Ca2+ dynamics to simulate Ca 2+ influx through individual L-type calcium channels (LCCs), an effective Ca2+ diffusion within the cytoplasmic space and in the dyadic space, and the experimentally observed calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) of the LCCs induced by local and global Ca2+ sensing. The models consisted of LCCs with distal and proximal Ca2+ (Calmodulin-Ca2+ complex) binding sites. In one model, the intracellular space was organelle-free cytoplasmic space, and the other was with a dyadic space including sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. The Ca2+ dynamics and CDI of the LCCs in the model with and without the dyadic space were then simulated using the Monte Carlo method. We first showed that an appropriate set of parameter values of the models with effectively extra-slow Ca2+ diffusion enabled the models to reproduce major features of the CDI process induced by the local and global sensing of Ca2+ near LCCs as measured with single and two spatially separated LCCs by Imredy and Yue (Neuron. 1992;9:197-207). The effective slow Ca2+ diffusion might be due to association and dissociation of Ca2+ and Calmodulin (CaM). We then examined how the local and global CDIs were affected by the presence of the dyadic space. The results suggested that in microstructure modeling of Ca 2+ dynamics in cardiac myocytes, the effective Ca2+ diffusion under CaM-Ca2+ interaction, the nanodomain structure of LCCs for detailed CDI, and the geometry of subcellular space for modeling dyadic space should be considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)471-480
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Physiological Sciences
Issue number7
StatePublished - Dec 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Calcium
  • Dyadic space
  • L-type calcium channel
  • Monte Carlo simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology


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