Methods for making induced pluripotent stem cells: Reprogramming à la carte

Federico González, Stéphanie Boué, Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

369 Scopus citations


Pluripotent stem-cell lines can be obtained through the reprogramming of somatic cells from different tissues and species by ectopic expression of defined factors. In theory, these cells- known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)- are suitable for various purposes, including disease modelling, autologous cell therapy, drug or toxicity screening and basic research. Recent methodological improvements are increasing the ease and efficiency of reprogramming, and reducing the genomic modifications required to complete the process. However, depending on the downstream applications, certain technologies have advantages over others. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the existing reprogramming approaches with the aim of providing readers with a better understanding of the reprogramming process and a basis for selecting the most suitable method for basic or clinical applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-242
Number of pages12
JournalNature Reviews Genetics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We apologize to those authors whose publications cannot be mentioned here owing to space constraints. F.G. was partially supported by a fellowship from the Swiss National Science Foundation. Work in the laboratory of J.C.I.B. was supported by grants from the G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation, the Cellex Foundation, MICINN and Sanofi-Aventis.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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