Li-metal is an attractive anode material for next-generation batteries owing to its high capacity and low reduction potential. Unfortunately, it undergoes dendritic growth, which limits its development. Herein, amorphous polymeric carbon-based semiconducting passivation layers are applied to Li-metal electrodes using radiofrequency plasma thermal evaporation to suppress dendrite growth. The plasma power is controlled to adjust the semiconducting type and mechanical properties of the plasma-polymerized carbon layer (PCL). n- and p-type semiconducting PCLs (n- and p-PCLs) form ohmic and Schottky contacts, respectively, with the Li-metal. p-PCL was more effective than n-PCL at suppressing Li-dendrite formation, as the former enhanced the modulus and Li-ion conductivity, inducing Li-ion deposition below the passivation layer. The p-PCL-coated Li electrode maintains state-of-the-art stable dendrite-free cycling behavior with overpotentials of ∼11.10 and ∼79.84 mV over 16 »450 and 2472 h at 1 and 10 mA cm-2, respectively.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by research grants from the National Research Foundation (NRF-2019R1A2B5B03001772 and NRF-2019H1D3A1A01069779) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT, Republic of Korea, and by the Institutional Program (2E30981). The authors thank Mr. Joo Man Woo (KIST) and Dr. Yuren Wen (University of Science and Engineering Beijing) for technical help during this investigation, and Ms. Cininta Anisa Savitri (KIST) for help in conducting the UV–vis measurements.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemistry (miscellaneous)
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Materials Chemistry