Low-defect-density WS2 by hydroxide vapor phase deposition

Yi Wan, En Li, Zhihao Yu, Jing-Kai Huang, Ming-yang Li, Ang-Sheng Chou, Yi-Te Lee, Chien-Ju Lee, Hung-Chang Hsu, Qin Zhan, Areej Aljarb, Jui-Han Fu, Shao-Pin Chiu, Xinran Wang, Juhn-Jong Lin, Ya-Ping Chiu, Wen-Hao Chang, Han Wang, Yumeng Shi, Nian LinYingchun Cheng, Vincent Tung, Lain-Jong Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting monolayers such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are promising channel materials to extend Moore’s Law in advanced electronics. Synthetic TMD layers from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are scalable for fabrication but notorious for their high defect densities. Therefore, innovative endeavors on growth reaction to enhance their quality are urgently needed. Here, we report that the hydroxide W species, an extremely pure vapor phase metal precursor form, is very efficient for sulfurization, leading to about one order of magnitude lower defect density compared to those from conventional CVD methods. The field-effect transistor (FET) devices based on the proposed growth reach a peak electron mobility ~200 cm2/Vs (~800 cm2/Vs) at room temperature (15 K), comparable to those from exfoliated flakes. The FET device with a channel length of 100 nm displays a high on-state current of ~400 µA/µm, encouraging the industrialization of 2D materials.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 18 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-09-14
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): OSR-2018-CARF/CCF-3079
Acknowledgements: V.T., and Y.W. are indebted to the support from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under Award No: OSR-2018-CARF/CCF-3079. E.L. and N.L. acknowledge the support of Hong Kong UGC (C6012-17E). H.W., M.Y.L., and A.S.C. thanks the support from Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC). W.H.C. acknowledges the supports from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST-108-2119-M-009-011-MY3, MOST-107-2112-M-009-024-MY3) and from the CEFMS of NCTU supported by the Ministry of Education of Taiwan. L.J.L. and Y.W. acknowledge the support from the University of Hong Kong. Special thanks to Kate Chuang for her assistance.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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