In this work, a simple lignin-based laser lithography technique is developed and used to fabricate on-chip microsupercapacitors (MSCs) using 3D graphene electrodes. Specifically, lignin films are transformed directly into 3D laser-scribed graphene (LSG) electrodes by a simple one-step CO2 laser irradiation. This step is followed by a water lift-off process to remove unexposed lignin, resulting in 3D graphene with the designed electrode patterns. The resulting LSG electrodes are hierarchically porous, electrically conductive (conductivity is up to 66.2 S cm−1), and have a high specific surface area (338.3 m2 g−1). These characteristics mean that such electrodes can be used directly as MSC electrodes without the need for binders and current collectors. The MSCs fabricated using lignin laser lithography exhibit good electrochemical performances, namely, high areal capacitance (25.1 mF cm−2), high volumetric energy density (≈1 mWh cm−3), and high volumetric power density (≈2 W cm−3). The versatility of lignin laser lithography opens up the opportunity in applications such as on-chip microsupercapacitors, sensors, and flexible electronics at large-scale production.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: W.L.Z. and Y.J.L. contributed equally to this work. Research reported in this publication was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). Authors thank the Advanced Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization Laboratory at KAUST for their excellent support. W.L.Z. thanks Fan Zhang and Dr. Chuan Xia at KAUST for their help.