Printing of binder-free graphene electrodes directly on substrates has the potential to enable a large number of applications. Though conventional processing techniques such as ink-jet, screen-printing, and roll coating methods offer reliable and scalable fabrication, device performance has often been limited by re-stacking of the graphene sheets and by presence of passive binders and or additives. Laser-based, direct-write technologies have shown promise as a reliable, maskless, and template-free patterning method. Thus, laser-derived graphene (LDG) electrode is emerging as a promising three-dimensional graphene electrode that can be simultaneously derived from precursor carbons or polymers and patterned upon laser exposure. The LDG can be obtained through irradiation by a variety of laser sources including CO2 infrared laser and femtosecond laser pulses, depending on the nature of the starting carbon precursors. Controlling the microstructure, amount and types of doping, and post-deposition methods enable a variety of applications including energy storage, catalysis, sensing and biomedicine. In this review article, we discuss recent progress in using laser-based fabrication of printed 3D graphene electrodes and its wide spectrum of applications. The review also discusses the material aspects of 3D graphene electrodes and provides an outlook for future potential.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: Research reported in this publication was supported by King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST).