IoT-Enabled Electronic Nose System for Beef Quality Monitoring and Spoilage Detection

Asrar Nabil Damdam, Levent Osman Ozay, Cagri Kaan Ozcan, Ashwaq Alzahrani, Raghad Helabi, Kahled Nabil Salama*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Food spoilage is a major concern in the food industry, especially for highly perishable foods such as beef. In this paper, we present a versatile Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled electronic nose system to monitor food quality by evaluating the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The IoT system consists mainly of an electronic nose, temperature/humidity sensors, and an ESP32-S3 microcontroller to send the sensors’ data to the server. The electronic nose consists of a carbon dioxide gas sensor, an ammonia gas sensor, and an ethylene gas sensor. This paper’s primary focus is to use the system for identifying beef spoilage. Hence, the system performance was examined on four beef samples stored at different temperatures: two at 4 °C and two at 21 °C. Microbial population quantifications of aerobic bacteria, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), and Pseudomonas spp., in addition to pH measurements, were conducted to evaluate the beef quality during a period of 7 days to identify the VOCs concentrations that are associated with raw beef spoilage. The spoilage concentrations that were identified using the carbon dioxide, ammonia, and ethylene sensors were 552 ppm–4751 ppm, 6 ppm–8 ppm, and 18.4 ppm–21.1 ppm, respectively, as determined using a 500 mL gas sensing chamber. Statistical analysis was conducted to correlate the bacterial growth with the VOCs production, where it was found that aerobic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. are responsible for most of the VOCs production in raw beef.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2227
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • beef quality
  • e-nose
  • food quality monitoring
  • food spoilage
  • food waste
  • IoT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Microbiology
  • Health(social science)
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Plant Science


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