Investigation of important biochemical compounds from selected freshwater macroalgae and their role in agriculture

Zahir Shah, Syed Lal Badshah, Arshad Iqbal, Zamarud Shah, Abdul-Hamid M. Emwas, Mariusz Jaremko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Freshwater macroalgae possess a number of important secondary metabolites. They are an unexplored source of medicinal compounds. In this study, three freshwater macroalgae—$\textit{Chara vulgaris}$, $\textit{Cladophora glomerata}$ and $\textit{Spirogyra crassa}$—were collected from the river Swat and the river Kabul in the Charsadda district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To assess the role of freshwater macroalgae in agriculture, various experiments were performed on their extracts. Methanolic extract of the three macroalgae were first analyzed through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for the presence of important medicinal secondary metabolites. The methanol based macroalgae extracts were tested for antibacterial, insecticidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Results Initially, the algae were dried, crushed and treated with methanol for the extraction of secondary metabolites. The GC–MS results contained several important long chain fatty acids and other related long-chain hydrocarbons, such as alkanes and alkenes. Several benzene derivatives were also detected during the course of the investigation. Several of these compounds have established roles in the treatment of human ailments and can be supplied to farm animals. For example, phenylephrine is a decongestant, dilates pupils, increases blood pressure and helps in relieving hemorrhoids. Hexahydropseudoionone has uses in perfumes and other cosmetics. Several essential oils were also detected in the methanolic extract of the three macroalgae that can be utilized in various industrial products. Bioassays showed that these algal extracts—especially the $\textit{Spirogyra}$ sp. extract—contain moderate to maximum bioactivity. Conclusions Macroalgae possess important secondary metabolites with medicinal properties. These secondary metabolites can be used as biopesticides, plant growth enhancers, and remedies for various diseases in farm animals and for the control of weeds. They can be further explored for isolation and purification of useful biochemical compounds.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalChemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-01-18
Acknowledgements: We are thankful to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for their financial support to conduct this research study.

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