Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints’ Applications

Mohamed Nasr Saleh, Ying Wang, Arief Yudhanto, Adam Joesbury, Prasad Potluri, Gilles Lubineau, Constantinos Soutis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure (~140 %) followed by AI (~105 %) and lastly LTL (~85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints’ applications. © 2016 The Author(s)
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-396
Number of pages20
JournalApplied Composite Materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - Sep 26 2016

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: Authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from University of Manchester (UoM) and from Baseline Research Funds from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). We also acknowledge the technical support from the National Composites Certification and Evaluation Facility (NCCEF).


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