Investigating the Biological Potency of Nitazoxanide-Based Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) Complexes Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-COVID-19, Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities

Abeer A. Sharfalddin*, Inas M. Al-Younis, Abdul Hamid Emwas, Mariusz Jaremko*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this work, the biological potency of nitazoxanide (NTZ) was enhanced through coordination with transition metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II). Initially, complexes with a ligand-metal stoichiometry of 2:1 were successfully synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques and thermogravimetric methods. Measurement of the infrared spectrum revealed the bidentate nature of the ligand and excluded the possibility of the metal ion—amide group interaction. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra showed a reduction in the NH- intensity signal and integration, indicating the possibility of enolization and the formation of keto-enol tautomers. To interpret these results, density functional theory was utilized under B3LYP/6-311G** for the free ligand and B3LYP/LANL2DZ for the metal complexes. We used UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy to understand the biological properties of the complexes. This showed stronger interactions of NTZ-Cu(II) and NTZ-Ni(II) with DNA molecules than the NTZ-Zn(II) compound, with a binding constant (Kb) for the copper complex of 7.00 × 105 M−1. Both Cu(II)- and Ni(II)-NTZ had functional binding to the SARS-CoV-2 (6LU7) protease. Moreover, all metal complexes showed better antioxidation properties than the free ligand, with NTZ-Ni(II) having the best IC50 value of 53.45 μg/mL. NTZ-Ni(II) was an effective antibacterial, with a mean inhibitory concentration of 6 μM, which is close to that of ampicillin (a reference drug). The metal complexes had moderated anticancer potencies, with NTZ-Cu(II) having IC50 values of 24.5 and 21.5 against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and cancerous cervical tumor cells (HeLa), respectively. All obtained complexes exhibited high selectivity. Finally, the metal ions showed a practical role in improving the biological effectiveness of NTZ molecules.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6126
JournalMolecules
Volume28
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

Keywords

  • antibacterial
  • anticancer
  • antioxidant
  • COVID-19
  • DFT calculation
  • nitazoxanide
  • transition metals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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