Interactive visual editing of grammars for procedural architecture

Markus Lipp*, Peter Wonka, Michael Wimmer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

92 Scopus citations


We introduce a real-time interactive visual editing paradigm for shape grammars, allowing the creation of rulebases from scratch without text file editing. In previous work, shape-grammar based procedural techniques were successfully applied to the creation of architectural models. However, those methods are text based, and may therefore be difficult to use for artists with little computer science background. Therefore the goal was to enable a visual work-flow combining the power of shape grammars with traditional modeling techniques. We extend previous shape grammar approaches by providing direct and persistent local control over the generated instances, avoiding the combinatorial explosion of grammar rules for modifications that should not affect all instances. The resulting visual editor is flexible: All elements of a complex state-of-the-art grammar can be created and modified visually.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102
JournalACM transactions on graphics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Architectural modeling
  • Procedural modeling
  • Shape grammars
  • Usability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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