Influence of fuel injection parameters at low-load conditions in a partially premixed combustion (PPC) based heavy-duty optical engine

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2 Scopus citations


The study examined the effects of second injection timings and fuel injection pressures (FIPs) in a double-injection based partially premixed combustion (PPC) using a single-cylinder heavy-duty optical diesel engine equipped with two different configurations, namely all-metal and optical. The thermodynamic analysis of energy balance, exhaust emissions, and particulates characterization was conducted in an all-metal engine configuration. For the same base engine architecture, high-speed natural combustion luminosity, cool-flame, and electronically excited hydroxyl (OH*) chemiluminescence, and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of formaldehyde (HCHO-PLIF) were applied in the optical configuration. Additionally, 1D modeling using GT-Power was utilized to examine the distribution of heat transfer losses through the individual cylinder boundaries. The experiments were conducted at low-load conditions at a fixed fuel mean effective pressure (MEPfuel) using a primary reference fuel with a volumetric mixture of 50% n-heptane and 50% iso-octane (PRF50). The results demonstrated that for a fixed first injection, the second injection timing of −6°CA aTDC is the most favorable condition due to increased gross indicated efficiency, reduced exhaust losses, decreased uHC/CO/soot emissions with a slight compromise on heat losses and NOx emissions. Among the tested FIPs of 1200, 1500, and 1800 bar, 1500 bar showed higher efficiency, and overall lower energy losses and exhaust emissions. At higher FIPs, the overall flame development process revealed reduced luminous intensity with dispersed signals formed downstream of the nozzle due to increased premixed combustion. For 1800 bar FIP, both cool-flame and HCHO signals showed an increased rate of reaction zones close to the bowl-wall region from where the OH radicals developed. Not only the initial low- to high-temperature reaction transition was faster for 1800 bar FIP but the signal decay of HCHO signals by OH radicals was also rapid in the late cycle. These findings explained the root cause of increased heat transfer losses and higher uHC/CO emissions at 1800 bar FIP.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)121049
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
StatePublished - Jul 5 2023

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-07-13
Acknowledgements: The research reported in this publication was funded by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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