Indoor Mixed Dual-Hop VLC/RF Systems through Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces

Liang Yang*, Xiaoqin Yan, Daniel Benevides Da Costa, Theodoros A. Tsiftsis, Hong Chuan Yang, Mohamed Slim Alouini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


In this letter, a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-assisted dual-hop visible light communication (VLC)/radio frequency (RF) system in indoor scenarios is proposed, in which the first link is a VLC link while an RIS is deployed in the second RF link. More specifically, a relay first converts the received optical signal into the RF signal blue using either decode-and-forward or amplify-and-forward protocols and then forwards it to the RIS. The RIS alters the electromagnetic response of the impinging waves to provide connectivity between the RF destination and optical source. Based on this model, closed-form expressions for the outage probability and bit error rate (BER) are derived. Also, an asymptotic analysis for the outage probability is presented. Finally, simulation results are provided to verify our analytical results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9145652
Pages (from-to)1995-1999
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Wireless Communications Letters
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received June 13, 2020; revised July 10, 2020; accepted July 17, 2020. Date of publication July 21, 2020; date of current version November 9, 2020. This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant 61671160; in part by the Department of Education of Guangdong Province under Grant 2016KZDXM050; in part by the Hunan Natural Science Foundation under Grant 2019JJ40043; in part by the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou under Grant 201904010249; and in part by the Science and Technology Program of Changsha under Grant kq1907112. The associate editor coordinating the review of this article and approving it for publication was Y. Zhu. (Corresponding author: Liang Yang.) Liang Yang and Xiaoqin Yan are with the College of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China (e-mail:;

Publisher Copyright:
© 2012 IEEE.

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Bit error rate (BER)
  • outage probability
  • reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)
  • visible light communication/radio frequency (VLC/RF) system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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