Lithium metal is the only anode material that can enable the Li-O2 battery to realize its high theoretical energy density (≈3500 Wh kg-1 ). However, the inherent uncontrolled dendrite growth and serious corrosion limitations of lithium metal anodes make it experience fast degradation and impede the practical application of Li-O2 batteries. Herein, a multifunctional complementary LiF/F-doped carbon gradient protection layer on a lithium metal anode by one-step in situ reaction of molten Li with poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) is developed. The abundant strong polar C-F bonds in the upper carbon can not only act as Li+ capture site to pre-uniform Li+ flux but also regulate the electron configuration of LiF to make Li+ quasi-spontaneously diffuse from carbon to LiF surface, avoiding the strong Li+ -adhesion-induced Li aggregation. For LiF, it can behave as fast Li+ conductor and homogenize the nucleation sites on lithium, as well as ensure firm connection with lithium. As a result, this well-designed protection layer endows the Li metal anode with dendrite-free plating/stripping and anticorrosion behavior both in ether-based and carbonate ester-based electrolytes. Even applied protected Li anodes in Li-O2 batteries, its superiority can still be maintained, making the cell achieve stable cycling performance (180 cycles).
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: Y.Y., G.H., and J.-Z.W. contributed equally to this work. This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFB0100103), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21725103), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA21010210), the Jilin Province Science and Technology Development Plan Funding Project (20180101203JC, 20200201079JC), and the Changchun Science and Technology Development Plan Funding Project (19SS010). We also appreciated the kind help from National & local united engineering lab for power battery in Northeast Normal University.