Immune status of Oreochromis niloticus subjected to long-term lead nitrate exposure and a Arthrospira platensis treatment trial

Ahmed H. Sherif, Eman T. Al-Sokary, Walid F. Rizk, Magdy E. Mahfouz

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16 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this study, the impacts of lead toxicity on Oreochromisniloticus were investigated. Additionally, the potential ameliorative effects of the Spirulina algae Arthrospira platensis were evaluated. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of PbNO3 was determined to be 143.3 mg/l for O. niloticus weighing 42 ± 2.5 g. O. niloticus were exposed to 10 % of the estimated PbNO3 LC50 for 12 weeks. The cumulative mortality rate (CMR) increased with exposure time. The results of assays for red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) indicated that the exposed O. niloticus suffered from anaemia. The levels of liver enzymes, namely, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), as well as metallothionein)MT(revealed deterioration of hepatic tissue. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as catalase (CAT) was stimulated in the hepatic tissue of O. niloticus exposed to PbNO3 and in those treated with A. platensis. Based on the results of serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and oxidative burst activity (OBA) assays as well as challenge tests with Aeromonas hydrophila, it was clear that supplementation with 5 or 10 g/kg A. platensis significantly enhanced the fish immune status and decreased the mortality rate (MR). However, these effects were reduced by PbNO3 exposure with no differences in MR percentage. Therefore, it was clear that O. niloticus reared in lead nitrate-polluted water were immunosuppressed, while diet supplementation with A. platensis could ameliorate such impacts.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume76
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2020
Externally publishedYes

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Generated from Scopus record by KAUST IRTS on 2023-09-25

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