Hybrid Doping of Few-Layer Graphene via a Combination of Intercalation and Surface Doping

Ahmed Mansour, Ahmad R. Kirmani, Stephen Barlow, Seth R. Marder, Aram Amassian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Surface molecular doping of graphene has been shown to modify its work function and increase its conductivity. However, the associated shifts in work function and increases in carrier concentration are highly coupled and limited by the surface coverage of dopant molecules on graphene. Here we show that few-layer graphene (FLG) can be doped using a hybrid approach, effectively combining surface doping by larger (metal-)organic molecules, while smaller molecules, such as Br2 and FeCl3, intercalate into the bulk. Intercalation tunes the carrier concentration more effectively, whereas surface doping of intercalated FLG can be used to tune its work function without reducing the carrier mobility. This multi-modal doping approach yields a very high carrier density and tunable work function for FLG, demonstrating a new versatile platform for fabricating graphene-based contacts for electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20020-20028
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issue number23
StatePublished - Jun 2 2017

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge Dr. Marcel Said for the early discussion of the hybrid doping approach, Dr. Yadong Zhang for synthesis of the Mo dopant, and Mrs. Lubna Jamshaid for her logistical support. This work was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), and Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research Award No. N00014-14-1-0126.


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