High-resolution climate characteristics of the Arabian Gulf based on a validated regional reanalysis

Hari Prasad Dasari, Yesubabu Viswanadhapalli, Sabique Langodan, Yasser Abualnaja, Srinivas Desamsetti, Koteswararao Vankayalapati, Luong Thang, Ibrahim Hoteit*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The regional climate of the Arabian Gulf (AG) and its variability are examined based on a 40-year (1980–2019), 5-km regional reanalysis of the Arabian Peninsula (AP reanalysis). The AP reanalysis fields were first validated against the available observations over the AG, suggesting that this high-resolution reanalysis well reproduces the spatio-temporal features of the AG atmospheric circulations. The validated AP reanalysis fields were then analysed to examine the climatic characteristics over the AG including the monthly mean, maximum and minimum temperatures, and the seasonal variations in winds, relative humidity and rainfall over the AG. The AG climate is mostly dry between May and October, and experiences moderate rainfall between December and January. The higher (lower) pressure difference between the northwest and southeast AG during summer (winter) generates the northwesterly Shamal winds over the north (central) AG. The mean Shamal winds are relatively stronger (weaker) and prolonged (shorter) during summer (winter); however, the short lived Shamal jet events in winter can be occasionally stronger than summer. In terms of interannual variability, the Shamal winds are stronger and more persistent in summer during El Niño years and in winter during La Niña years. These differences are mainly associated with changes in temperature gradients between the eastern AG and northwestern AP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2102
JournalMeteorological Applications
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The study was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) under the “Virtual Red Sea Initiative”, Award Number REP/1/3268‐01‐01, and the Saudi Aramco Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERK). The research made use of the KAUST Supercomputing facility SHAHEEN.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Meteorological Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Meteorological Society.


  • Arabian Gulf
  • climate variability
  • regional reanalysis
  • Shamal winds
  • temperature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science


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