High-Gain Chemically Gated Organic Electrochemical Transistor

Siew Ting Melissa Tan, Alexander Giovannitti, Armantas Melianas, Maximilian Moser, Benjamin L. Cotts, Devan Singh, Iain McCulloch, Alberto Salleo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have exhibited promising performance as transducers and amplifiers of low potentials due to their exceptional transconductance, enabled by the volumetric charging of organic mixed ionic/electronic conductors (OMIECs) employed as the channel material. OECT performance in aqueous electrolytes as well as the OMIECs’ redox activity has spurred a myriad of studies employing OECTs as chemical transducers. However, the OECT's large (potentiometrically derived) transconductance is not fully leveraged in common approaches that directly conduct chemical reactions amperometrically within the OECT electrolyte with direct charge transfer between the analyte and the OMIEC, which results in sub-unity transduction of gate to drain current. Hence, amperometric OECTs do not truly display current gains in the traditional sense, falling short of the expected transistor performance. This study demonstrates an alternative device architecture that separates chemical transduction and amplification processes on two different electrochemical cells. This approach fully utilizes the OECT's large transconductance to achieve current gains of 103 and current modulations of four orders of magnitude. This transduction mechanism represents a general approach enabling high-gain chemical OECT transducers.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2010868
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
StatePublished - Mar 3 2021

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2021-03-08
Acknowledgements: The authors thank the Dionne lab for access to their UV–vis spectrometer and the Soft and Hybrid Materials Facility in the Stanford Nano Shared Facilities for access to the rheometer and profilometer. A.G. and A.S. acknowledge funding from the TomKat Center for Sustainable Energy at Stanford University. A.S. and M.T. gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation Award CBET #1 804 915. A.M. gratefully acknowledges support from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (KAW 2016.0494) for Postdoctoral Research at Stanford University. Part of this work was performed at the Stanford Nano Shared Facilities (SNSF), supported by the National Science Foundation under award ECCS–1542152.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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