High-Efficiency Perovskite–Organic Blend Light-Emitting Diodes Featuring Self-Assembled Monolayers as Hole-Injecting Interlayers

Murali Gedda*, Despoina Gkeka, Mohamad Insan Nugraha, Alberto D. Scaccabarozzi, Emre Yengel, Jafar I. Khan, Iain Hamilton, Yuanbao Lin, Marielle Deconinck, Yana Vaynzof, Frédéric Laquai, Donal D.C. Bradley, Thomas D. Anthopoulos*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The high photoluminescence efficiency, color purity, extended gamut, and solution processability make low-dimensional hybrid perovskites attractive for light-emitting diode (PeLED) applications. However, controlling the microstructure of these materials to improve the device performance remains challenging. Here, the development of highly efficient green PeLEDs based on blends of the quasi-2D (q2D) perovskite, PEA2Cs4Pb5Br16, and the wide bandgap organic semiconductor 2,7 dioctyl[1] benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) is reported. The presence of C8-BTBT enables the formation of single-crystal-like q2D PEA2Cs4Pb5Br16 domains that are uniform and highly luminescent. Combining the PEA2Cs4Pb5Br16:C8-BTBT with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as hole-injecting layers (HILs), yields green PeLEDs with greatly enhanced performance characteristics, including external quantum efficiency up to 18.6%, current efficiency up to 46.3 cd A−1, the luminance of 45 276 cd m−2, and improved operational stability compared to neat PeLEDs. The enhanced performance originates from multiple synergistic effects, including enhanced hole-injection enabled by the SAM HILs, the single crystal-like quality of the perovskite phase, and the reduced concentration of electronic defects. This work highlights perovskite:organic blends as promising systems for use in LEDs, while the use of SAM HILs creates new opportunities toward simpler and more stable PeLEDs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2201396
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number33
StatePublished - Sep 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M.G. and D.G. contributed equally to this work. This publication is based in part on work supported by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Research Administration (ORA) under Award No: OSR‐2016‐CRG5‐3029 and OSR‐CCF‐3079. Baseline funding from KAUST is also acknowledged by DDCB and TDA. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (ERC Grant Agreement n° 714067, ENERGYMAPS) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the Special Priority Program (SPP 2196) project PERFECT PVs (#424216076).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • 2D perovskites
  • interlayers
  • light-emitting diodes
  • organic semiconductors
  • self-assembled monolayers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)


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