Heterogeneous Cubic Multidimensional Integrated Circuit for Water and Food Security in Fish Farming Ponds.

Nazek Elatab, Reema Almansour, Alhanouf Alhazzany, Reema Suwaidan, Yara Alghamdi, Wedyan Babatain, Sohail F. Shaikh, Sherjeel M Khan, Nadeem Qaiser, Muhammad Mustafa Hussain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Among major food production sectors, world aquaculture shows the highest growth rate, providing more than 50% of the global seafood market. However, water pollution in fish farming ponds is regarded as the leading cause of fish death and financial losses in the market. Here, an Internet of Things system based on a cubic multidimensional integration of circuit (MD-IC) is demonstrated for water and food security applications in fish farming ponds. Both faces of the silicon substrate are used for thin-film-based device fabrication. The devices are interconnected via through-silicon-vias, resulting in a bifacial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible electronics system. The demonstrated cubic MD-IC is a complete, small, and lightweight system that can be easily deployed by farmers with no need for specialists. The system integrates on its outer sides simultaneous air and water quality monitoring devices (temperature, electrical conductivity, ammonia, and pH sensors), solar cells for energy-harvesting, and antenna for real-time data-transfer, while data-management circuitry and a solid-state battery are integrated on its internal faces. Microfluidic cooling technology is used for thermal management in the MD-IC. Finally, a biofriendly polymeric encapsulation is used to waterproof the embedded electronics, improve the mechanical robustness, and allow the system to float on the surface of the water.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1905399
JournalSmall (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)
StatePublished - Dec 23 2019

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): OSR-2015-Sensors-2707, OSR-2016-KKI-2880.
Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge support from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under Award No. Sensor Innovation Initiative OSR-2015-Sensors-2707 and KAUST-KFUPM Special Initiative OSR-2016-KKI-2880.


Dive into the research topics of 'Heterogeneous Cubic Multidimensional Integrated Circuit for Water and Food Security in Fish Farming Ponds.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this