Growth modification via indium surfactant for InGaN/GaN green LED

M. Ikram Md Taib, M. A. Ahmad, E. A. Alias, A. I. Alhassan, I. A. Ajia, M. M. Muhammed, I. S. Roqan, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, N. Zainal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


In this work, indium (In) was introduced as a surfactant during growth of high temperature GaN quantum barriers (QBs) and GaN interlayer of InGaN/GaN green LEDs. A reference LED grown without In-surfactant was also included for comparison. Results suggested that the LED growth was improved by introducing the In-surfactant, especially during the growth of the GaN interlayer. The In-surfactant improved the morphology of the interlayer, hence allowed it to serve as a good surface growth for the LED. Moreover, the LED showed the lowest full width at half maximum of each x-ray diffraction satellite peak when the In-surfactant was introduced in the GaN interlayer, suggesting an effective way to improve the multi-quantum wells. The introduction of the In-surfactant in the GaN interlayer and GaN QBs growths shifted the emission wavelength of the corresponding LEDs towards red (λ emission = 534 nm) with respect to the reference LED where λ emission = 526 nm. Furthermore, the In-surfactant introduction reduced the forward voltage, V f of the corresponding LEDs down to 4.56 V, compared to the reference LED with V f of 5.33 V. It also allowed the LEDs to show faster carrier decay lifetime, and hence higher radiative recombination, particularly when it was introduced in the GaN interlayer growth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number035025
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • interlayer
  • light-emitting diodes
  • multiquantum well
  • quantum barriers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Growth modification via indium surfactant for InGaN/GaN green LED'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this