Graphene and Liquid Metal Integrated Multifunctional Wearable Platform for Monitoring Motion and Human–Machine Interfacing

Wedyan Babatain, Ulrich Buttner, Nazek Elatab, Muhammad Mustafa Hussain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Motion sensors are an essential component of many electronic systems. However, the development of inertial motion sensors based on fatigue-free soft proof mass has not been explored extensively in the field of soft electronics. Nontoxic gallium-based liquid metals are an emerging class of material that exhibit attractive electromechanical properties, making them excellent proof mass materials for inertial sensors. Here, we propose and demonstrate a fully soft laser-induced graphene (LIG) and liquid metal-based inertial sensor integrated with temperature, humidity, and breathing sensors. The inertial sensor design confines a graphene-coated liquid metal droplet inside a fluidic channel, rolling over LIG resistive electrode. The proposed sensor architecture and material realize a highly mobile proof mass and a vibrational space for its oscillation. The inertial sensor exhibits a high sensitivity of 6.52% m-1 s2 and excellent repeatability (over 12 500 cycles). The platform is fabricated using a scalable, rapid laser writing technique and integrated with a programmable system on a chip (PSoC) to function as a stand-alone system for real-time wireless monitoring of movement patterns and the control of a robotic arm. The developed printed inertial platform is an excellent candidate for the next-generation of wearables motion tracking platforms and soft human-machine interfaces.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalACS Nano
StatePublished - Oct 6 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-10-11
Acknowledgements: Authors acknowledge generous support of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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