Global, regional, and national burden of colorectal cancer and its risk factors, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

Rajesh Sharma, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Rami Abd-Rabu, Hassan Abidi, Eman Abu-Gharbieh, Juan Manuel Acuna, Sangeet Adhikari, Shailesh M. Advani, Muhammad Sohail Afzal, Mohamad Aghaie Meybodi, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Sajjad Ahmad, Ali Ahmadi, Sepideh Ahmadi, Haroon Ahmed, Luai A. Ahmed, Muktar Beshir Ahmed, Hanadi Al Hamad, Fares Alahdab, Fahad Mashhour AlaneziTurki M. Alanzi, Fadwa Alhalaiqa Naji Alhalaiqa, Yousef Alimohamadi, Vahid Alipour, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Motasem Alkhayyat, Sami Almustanyir, Rajaa M. Al-Raddadi, Saba Alvand, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Saeed Amini, Robert Ancuceanu, Amir Anoushiravani, Ali Arash Anoushirvani, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Jalal Arabloo, Armin Aryannejad, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Floriane Ausloos, Marcel Ausloos, Atalel Fentahun Awedew, Mamaru Ayenew Awoke, Tegegn Mulatu Ayana, Sina Azadnajafabad, Hiva Azami, Mohammadreza Azangou-Khyavy, Amirhossein Azari Jafari, Ashish D. Badiye, Sara Bagherieh, Saeed Bahadory, Atif Amin Baig, Jennifer L. Baker, Maciej Banach, Amadou Barrow, Alemshet Yirga Berhie, Sima Besharat, Devidas S. Bhagat, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Neeraj Bhala, Krittika Bhattacharyya, Vijayalakshmi S. Bhojaraja, Sadia Bibi, Ali Bijani, Antonio Biondi, Tone Bjorge, Belay Boda Abule Bodicha, Dejana Braithwaite, Hermann Brenner, Daniela Calina, Chao Cao, Yin Cao, Giulia Carreras, Felix Carvalho, Ester Cerin, Raja Chandra Chakinala, William C. S. Cho, Dinh-Toi Chu, Joao Conde, Vera Marisa Costa, Natalia Cruz-Martins, Omid Dadras, Xiaochen Dai, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Anna Danielewicz, Feleke Mekonnen Demeke, Getu Debalkie Demissie, Rupak Desai, Deepak Dhamnetiya, Mostafa Dianatinasab, Daniel Diaz, Mojtaba Didehdar, Saeid Doaei, Linh Phuong Doan, Milad Dodangeh, Fatemeh Eghbalian, Debela Debela Ejeta, Michael Ekholuenetale, Temitope Cyrus Ekundayo, Iman El Sayed, Muhammed Elhadi, Daniel Berhanie Enyew, Tahir Eyayu, Rana Ezzeddini, Ildar Ravisovich Fakhradiyev, Umar Farooque, Hossein Farrokhpour, Farshad Farzadfar, Ali Fatehizadeh, Hamed Fattahi, Nima Fattahi, Masood Fereidoonnezhad, Eduarda Fernandes, Getahun Fetensa, Irina Filip, Florian Fischer, Masoud Foroutan, Peter Andras Gaal, Mohamed M. Gad, Silvano Gallus, Tushar Garg, Tamiru Getachew, Seyyed-Hadi Ghamari, Ahmad Ghashghaee, Nermin Ghith, Maryam Gholamalizadeh, Jamshid Gholizadeh Navashenaq, Abraham Tamirat Gizaw, James C. Glasbey, Mahaveer Golechha, Pouya Goleij, Kebebe Bekele Gonfa, Giuseppe Gorini, Avirup Guha, Sapna Gupta, Veer Bala Gupta, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Rasool Haddadi, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Arvin Haj-Mirzaian, Rabih Halwani, Shafiul Haque, Sanam Hariri, Ahmed Hasaballah, Soheil Hassanipour, Simon Hay, Claudiu Herteliu, Ramesh Holla, Mohammad-Salar Hosseini, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Mihaela Hostiuc, Mowafa Househ, Junjie Huang, Ayesha Humayun, Ivo Iavicoli, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Irena M. Ilic, Milena D. Ilic, Farhad Islami, Masao Iwagami, Mohammad Ali Jahani, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Tahereh Javaheri, Ranil Jayawardena, Rime Jebai, Ravi Prakash Jha, Tamas Joo, Nitin Joseph, Farahnaz Joukar, Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak, Ali Kabir, Rohollah Kalhor, Ashwin Kamath, Neeti Kapoor, Ibraheem M. Karaye, Amirali Karimi, Joonas H. Kauppila, Asma Kazemi, Mohammad Keykhaei, Yousef Saleh Khader, Himanshu Khajuria, Rovshan Khalilov, Javad Khanali, Maryam Khayamzadeh, Mahmoud Khodadost, Hanna Kim, Min Seo Kim, Adnan Kisa, Sezer Kisa, Ali-Asghar Kolahi, Hamid Reza Koohestani, Jacek A. Kopec, Rajasekaran Koteeswaran, Ai Koyanagi, Yuvaraj Krishnamoorthy, G. Anil Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Vivek Kumar, Carlo La Vecchia, Faris Hasan Lami, Ivan Landires, Caterina Ledda, Sang-woong Lee, Wei-Chen Lee, Yeong Yeh Lee, Elvynna Leong, Bingyu Li, Stephen S. Lim, Stany W. Lobo, Joana A. Loureiro, Raimundas Lunevicius, Farzan Madadizadeh, Ata Mahmoodpoor, Azeem Majeed, Mohammad-Reza Malekpour, Reza Malekzadeh, Ahmad Azam Malik, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani, Miquel Martorell, Sahar Masoudi, Prashant Mathur, Jitendra Kumar Meena, Entezar Mehrabi Nasab, Walter Mendoza, Alexios-Fotios A. Mentis, Tomislav Mestrovic, Junmei Miao Jonasson, Bartosz Miazgowski, Tomasz Miazgowski, Gelana Fekadu Worku Mijena, Seyyedmohammadsadeq Mirmoeeni, Mohammad Mirza-Aghazadeh-Attari, Hamed Mirzaei, Sanjeev Misra, Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, Esmaeil Mohammadi, Saeed Mohammadi, Seyyede Momeneh Mohammadi, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Shafiu Mohammed, Teroj Abdulrahman Mohammed, Nagabhishek Moka, Ali H. Mokdad, Zeinab Mokhtari, Mariam Molokhia, Sara Momtazmanesh, Lorenzo Monasta, Ghobad Moradi, Rahmatollah Moradzadeh, Paula Moraga, Joana Morgado-da-Costa, Sumaira Mubarik, Francesk Mulita, Mohsen Naghavi, Mukhammad David Naimzada, Hae Sung Nam, Zuhair S. Natto, Biswa Prakash Nayak, Javad Nazari, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Ionut Negoi, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Son Hoang Nguyen, Nurulamin M. Noor, Maryam Noori, Seyyed Mohammad Ali Noori, Virginia Nunez-Samudio, Chimezie Igwegbe Nzoputam, Bogdan Oancea, Oluwakemi Ololade Odukoya, Ayodipupo Sikiru Oguntade, Hassan Okati-Aliabad, Andrew T. Olagunju, Tinuke O. Olagunju, Sokking Ong, Samuel M. Ostroff, Alicia Padron-Monedero, Reza Pakzad, Adrian Pana, Anamika Pandey, Fatemeh Pashazadeh Kan, Urvish K. Patel, Uttam Paudel, Renato B. Pereira, Navaraj Perumalsamy, Richard G. Pestell, Zahra Zahid Piracha, Richard Charles G. Pollok, Akram Pourshams, Naeimeh Pourtaheri, Akila Prashant, Mohammad Rabiee, Navid Rabiee, Amir Radfar, Sima Rafiei, Mosiur Rahman, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Vahid Rahmanian, Nazanin Rajai, Aashish Rajesh, Vajiheh Ramezani-Doroh, Kiana Ramezanzadeh, Kamal Ranabhat, Sina Rashedi, Amirfarzan Rashidi, Mohammad-Mahdi Rashidi, Mandana Rastegar, David Laith Rawaf, Salman Rawaf, Reza Rawassizadeh, Mohammad Sadegh Razeghinia, Andre M. N. Renzaho, Nima Rezaei, Saeid Rezaei, Mohsen Rezaeian, Sahba Rezazadeh-Khadem, Gholamreza Roshandel, Maha Mohamed Saber-Ayad, Bahar Saberzadeh-Ardestani, Basema Saddik, Hossein Sadeghi, Umar Saeed, Maryam Sahebazzamani, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Amir Salek Farrokhi, Amir Salimi, Hamideh Salimzadeh, Pouria Samadi, Mehrnoosh Samaei, Abdallah M. Samy, Juan Sanabria, Milena M. Santric-Milicevic, Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib, Arash Sarveazad, Brijesh Sathian, Maheswar Satpathy, Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider, Mario Sekerija, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Allen Seylani, Feng Sha, Sayed Mohammad Shafiee, Zahra Shaghaghi, Saeed Shahabi, Elaheh Shaker, Maedeh Sharifian, Javad Sharifi-Rad, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Jeevan K. Shetty, Reza Shirkoohi, Parnian Shobeiri, Sudeep K. Siddappa Malleshappa, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Guilherme Silva Julian, Achintya Dinesh Singh, Jasvinder A. Singh, Md Shahjahan Siraj, Gholam Reza Sivandzadeh, Valentin Yurievich Skryabin, Anna Aleksandrovna Skryabina, Bogdan Socea, Marco Solmi, Mohammad Sadegh Soltani-Zangbar, Suhang Song, Viktoria Szerencses, Miklos Szocska, Rafael Tabares-Seisdedos, Elnaz Tabibian, Majid Taheri, Yasaman Taheri Abkenar, Amir Taherkhani, Iman M. Talaat, Ker-Kan Tan, Abdelghani Tbakhi, Bekele Tesfaye, Amir Tiyuri, Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Mathilde Touvier, Bach Xuan Tran, Biruk Shalmeno Tusa, Irfan Ullah, Saif Ullah, Marco Vacante, Sahel Valadan Tahbaz, Massimiliano Veroux, Bay Vo, Theo Vos, Cong Wang, Ronny Westerman, Melat Woldemariam, Seyed Hossein Yahyazadeh Jabbari, Lin Yang, Fereshteh Yazdanpanah, Chuanhua Yu, Deniz Yuce, Ismaeel Yunusa, Vesna Zadnik, Mazyar Zahir, Iman Zare, Zhi-Jiang Zhang, Mohammad� Zoladi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

201 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Given the recent increasing trends in colorectal cancer incidence globally, up-to-date information on the colorectal cancer burden could guide screening, early detection, and treatment strategies, and help effectively allocate resources. We examined the temporal patterns of the global, regional, and national burden of colorectal cancer and its risk factors in 204 countries and territories across the past three decades. Methods: Estimates of incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for colorectal cancer were generated as a part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 by age, sex, and geographical location for the period 1990–2019. Mortality estimates were produced using the cause of death ensemble model. We also calculated DALYs attributable to risk factors that had evidence of causation with colorectal cancer. Findings: Globally, between 1990 and 2019, colorectal cancer incident cases more than doubled, from 842 098 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 810 408–868 574) to 2·17 million (2·00–2·34), and deaths increased from 518 126 (493 682–537 877) to 1·09 million (1·02–1·15). The global age-standardised incidence rate increased from 22·2 (95% UI 21·3–23·0) per 100 000 to 26·7 (24·6–28·9) per 100 000, whereas the age-standardised mortality rate decreased from 14·3 (13·5–14·9) per 100 000 to 13·7 (12·6–14·5) per 100 000 and the age-standardised DALY rate decreased from 308·5 (294·7–320·7) per 100 000 to 295·5 (275·2–313·0) per 100 000 from 1990 through 2019. Taiwan (province of China; 62·0 [48·9–80·0] per 100 000), Monaco (60·7 [48·5–73·6] per 100 000), and Andorra (56·6 [42·8–71·9] per 100 000) had the highest age-standardised incidence rates, while Greenland (31·4 [26·0–37·1] per 100 000), Brunei (30·3 [26·6–34·1] per 100 000), and Hungary (28·6 [23·6–34·0] per 100 000) had the highest age-standardised mortality rates. From 1990 through 2019, a substantial rise in incidence rates was observed in younger adults (age
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)627-647
Number of pages21
JournalLANCET GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY
Volume7
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 13 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-10-25
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. J M Acuna acknowledges support from the Khalifa University College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Research and Data Intelligence Support Center, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. S Ahmad thanks the Department of Health and Biological Sciences, Abasyn University, Peshawar, Pakistan, for their support. S M Aljunid acknowledges the Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Public Health, Kuwait University, Kuwait, for approval and support to participate in this research project. F Carvalho and E Fernandes acknowledge support from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P. (FCT), in the scope of the project UIDP/04378/2020 and UIDB/04378/2020 of the Research Unit on Applied Molecular Biosciences UCIBIO and the project LA/P/0140/2020 of the Associate Laboratory Institute for Health and Bioeconomy i4HB; FCT/MCTES through the project UIDB/50006/2020. J Conde acknowledges the European Research Council Starting Grant (ERC-StG-2019-848325). V M Costa acknowledges the grant SFRH/BHD/110001/2015, received by Portuguese national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), IP, under the Norma Transitória DL57/2016/CP1334/CT0006. N Ghith acknowledges support by a grant from Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF16OC0021856) in the form of salary payments. J C Glasbey is supported by a National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Academy Doctoral Research Fellow (NIHR300175). V K Gupta and V B Gupta acknowledge funding support from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australia. S Haque acknowledges support from the Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia, for providing the access of the Saudi Digital Library for this research study. A Pana, M Ausloos, and C Herteliu are partially supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNDS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P4-ID-PCCF-2016-0084. M Jakovljevic acknowledges support from the Ministry of Education Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia through the Grant OI175014 and from the Science Fund of The Republic of Serbia through Grant Em-CEAS. I Landires is a member of the Sistema Nacional de Investigación (SNI), which is supported by Panama's Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SENACYT). B Li was supported by the Guangdong Philosophy and Social Science Fund (GD21YSH06), the Shenzhen Philosophy and Social Science Fund (grant number SZ2020C015), and the Shenzhen Science and Technology Fund (grant number 20200805164059001). J A Loureiro was supported by national funds through the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, under the Scientific Employment Stimulus (CEECINST/00049/2018). V Nuñez-Samudio is a member of the Sistema Nacional de Investigación (SNI), which is supported by Panama's Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SENACYT). O O Odukoya acknowledges support from the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health under the award number K43TW010704. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the US National Institutes of Health. A M Samy acknowledges the support from the Egyptian Fulbright Mission Program. D A S Silva acknowledges support in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—Brazil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001 and in part by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Brazil (CNPq - 302028/2018-8). Editorial note: the Lancet Group takes a neutral position with respect to territorial claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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