Geospatial distribution and health risk assessment of groundwater contaminated within the industrial areas: an environmental sustainability perspective

Roohul Abad Khan, Nadeem A. Khan, Rachida El Morabet, Majed Alsubih, Abdul Qadir, Awais Bokhari, Muhammad Mubashir, Saira Asif, Wai Yan Cheah, Sivakumar Manickam, Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Kuan Shiong Khoo

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11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Groundwater is the second largest water source for daily consumption, only next to surface water resources. Groundwater has been extensively investigated for its pollution level in urban areas. The groundwater quality assessments in industrial areas associated with every urban landscape are still lacking. This study was carried out in two industrial areas including Okhla and Mohan cooperative in New Delhi, India. The six groundwater samples were obtained for water quality assessment for 2015 and 2018. The heavy metals investigated in water samples were Cu, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Fe, Cr, and Mn. The water quality was assessed in the heavy metals index (MI) and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). From indexing approach, it was observed that pollution levels have increased in year 2018 as compared to the year 2015. MI < 1 for Cu in 2015 and 2018 in both industrial areas. In the case of remaining metals, MI ranged from 2.5 to 8.4. When the HPI indexing approach was adopted, water was unfit for drinking in both industrial areas in 2015 and 2018, with an HPI value > 100. Non-carcinogenic risk assessment (HI) ranged from 1.7 to 1.9 in 2015, increasing from 17.41 to 217 in 2018, indicating high risk in both years. Carcinogenic risk (CR) was within the acceptable range for 48% of each heavy metal analysed sample. When the Carcinogenic risk index was considered (CRI), all samples were beyond the acceptable range, and every person was prone to carcinogenic risk in 2015.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalChemosphere
Volume303
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022
Externally publishedYes

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Generated from Scopus record by KAUST IRTS on 2023-09-20

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