Genome sequence of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans ): Vector of African trypanosomiasis

Junichi Watanabe, Masahira Hattori, Matthew Berriman, Michael J. Lehane, Neil Hall, Philippe Solano, Serap Aksoy, Winston Hide, Yéya Tiémoko Touré, Geoffrey M. Attardo, Alistair Charles Darby, Atsushi Toyoda, Christiane Hertz-Fowler, Denis M. Larkin, James A. Cotton, Mandy J. Sanders, Martin T. Swain, Michael A. Quail, Noboru Inoue, Sophie RavelTodd Duane Taylor, Tulika P. Srivastava, Vineet Kumar Sharma, Wesley C. Warren, Richard K. Wilson, Yutaka Suzuki, Daniel Lawson, Daniel Seth Toney Hughes, Karyn Megy, Daniel K. Masiga, Paul Odhiambo Mireji, Immo Alex Hansen, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Joshua B. Benoit, Kostas Bourtzis, George F O Obiero, Hugh M. Robertson, Jeffery W. Jones, Jingjiang Zhou, Linda M. Field, Markus Friedrich, Steven R G Nyanjom, Erich Loza Telleria, Guy Caljon, José M. C. Ribeiro, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Cherpheng Ooi, Clair Rose, David P. Price, Lee Rafuse Haines, Alan G. Christoffels, Cheolho Sim, Daphne Q D Pham, David L. Denlinger, Dawn L. Geiser, Irene A. Omedo, Joy J. Winzerling, Justin T. Peyton, Kevin K. Marucha, Mario Jonas, Megan E. Meuti, Neil David Rawlings, Qirui Zhang, Rosaline Wanjiru Macharia, Veronika Michalkova, Zahra Jalali Sefid Dashti, Aaron A. Baumann, Gerd Gäde, Heather G. Marco, Jelle Caers, Liliane Schoofs, Michael A. Riehle, Wanqi Hu, Zhijian Tu, Aaron M. Tarone, Anna Rodolfa Malacrida, Caleb K. Kibet, Francesca Scolari, J. J. O. Koekemoer, Judith H. Willis, Ludvik M. Gomulski, Marco Falchetto, Maxwell J. Scott, Shuhua Fu, Singhoi Sze, Thiago Luiz, Brian L. Weiss, Deirdre P. Walshe, Jingwen Wang, Mark Wamalwa, Sarah Mwangi, Urvashi N. Ramphul, Anna K. Snyder, Corey L. Brelsfoard, Gavin H. Thomas, George Tsiamis, Peter Arensburger, Rita V M Rio, Sandy J. Macdonald, Sumir Panji, Adele F. Kruger, Alia Benkahla, Apollo Simon Peter Balyeidhusa, Atway R. Msangi, Chinyere K. Okoro, Dawn Stephens, Eleanor J. Stanley, Feziwe Mpondo, Florence N. Wamwiri, Furaha Mramba, Geoffrey H. Siwo, George Githinji, Gordon William Harkins, Grace Adira Murilla, Heikki Lehväslaiho, Imna I. Malele, Joanna Eseri Auma, Johnson K. Kinyua, Johnson O. Ouma, Loyce M A Okedi, Lucien Manga, Martin A. Aslett, Mathurin Koffi, Michael W. Gaunt, Mmule Makgamathe, Nicola Jane Mulder, Oliver Manangwa, Patrick P. Abila, Patrick Wincker, Richard I. Gregory, Rosemary Bateta, Ryuichi Sakate, Sheila Ommeh, Stella M. Lehane, Tadashi Imanishi, Victor Chukwudi Osamor, Yoshihiro Kawahara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

191 Scopus citations


Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. Notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. Here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina morsitans morsitans genome. Analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein-encoding genes led to multiple discoveries, including chromosomal integrations of bacterial (Wolbachia) genome sequences, a family of lactation-specific proteins, reduced complement of host pathogen recognition proteins, and reduced olfaction/chemosensory associated genes. These genome data provide a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)380-386
Number of pages7
Issue number6182
StatePublished - Apr 24 2014

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: The public release and future updates of the genome sequence and associated information are hosted at VectorBase ( The genome sequence can also be found at GenBank under the accession no. CCAG010000000. The Glossina morsitans genome project was funded by the Wellcome Trust (grants 085775/Z/08/Z and 098051) and World Health Organization (WHO) Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) (project no. A90088) and the Ambrose Monell Foundation. Authors also acknowledge support by the Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Program "Improving SIT for Tsetse Flies through Research on their Symbionts," the European Union Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action FA0701 "Arthropod Symbiosis: From Fundamental Studies to Pest and Disease Management," and a grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas "Comprehensive Genomics" from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (to M. H.). BAC libraries were generated through National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases resources, and sequencing was supported by RIKEN Japan. We thank the staff in the library construction, sequence production, and informatics support groups at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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