Several approaches have been developed that generate embeddings for Description Logic ontologies and use these embeddings in machine learning. One approach of generating ontologies embeddings is by first embedding the ontologies into a graph structure, i.e., introducing a set of nodes and edges for named entities and logical axioms, and then applying a graph embedding to embed the graph in RN. Methods that embed ontologies in graphs (graph projections) have different formal properties related to the type of axioms they can utilize, whether the projections are invertible or not, and whether they can be applied to asserted axioms or their deductive closure. We analyze, qualitatively and quantitatively, several graph projection methods that have been used to embed ontologies, and we demonstrate the effect of the properties of graph projections on the performance of predicting axioms from ontology embeddings. We find that there are substantial differences between different projection methods, and both the projection of axioms into nodes and edges as well ontological choices in representing knowledge will impact the success of using ontology embeddings to predict axioms.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||17th International Workshop on Neural-Symbolic Learning and Reasoning, NeSy 2023|
|Number of pages||18|
|State||Published - May 2023|