Extraction and Fractionation of Prokinetic Phytochemicals from Chrozophora tinctoria and Their Bioactivities

Arshad Iqbal, Ayaz Ali Sher, Naveed Muhammad, Syed Lal Badshah, Abdul-Hamid M. Emwas, Mariusz Jaremko

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Abstract

Chrozophora tinctoria is an annual plant of the family Euphorbiaceae, traditionally used as a laxative, a cathartic and an emetic. A methanolic extract of Chrozophora tinctoria (MEC) whole plant and an n-butanol fraction of Chrozophora tinctoria (NBFC) were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect the phytochemicals. MEC and NBFC were tested for in vitro anti acetylcholinesterase (AChE) potential. The effect of both samples on intestinal propulsive movement and spasmolytic activity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was also studied. About twelve compounds in MEC and three compounds in NBFC were tentatively identified through GC-MS. Some of them are compounds with known therapeutic activity, such as toluene; imipramine; undecane; 14-methyl-pentadecanoic acid methyl ester; and hexadecanoic acid. Both NBFC and MEC samples were checked for acute toxicity and were found to be highly toxic in a dose-dependent manner, causing diarrhea and emesis at 1 g/kg concentration in pigeons, with the highest lethargy and mortality above 3 g/kg. Both the samples of Chrozophora tinctoria revealed significant (p ≤ 0.01) laxative activity against metronidazole (7 mg/kg) and loperamide hydrochloride (4 mg/kg)-induced constipation. NBFC (81.18 ± 2.5%) and MEC (68.28 ± 2.4%) significantly increased charcoal meal intestinal transit compared to distal water (41.15 ± 4.3%). NBFC exhibited a significant relaxant effect (EC50 = 3.40 ± 0.20 mg/mL) in spontaneous rabbit jejunum as compared to MEC (EC50 = 4.34 ± 0.68 mg/kg). Similarly, the impact of NBFC on KCl-induced contraction was more significant than that of MEC (EC50 values of 7.22 ± 0.06 mg/mL and 7.47 ± 0.57 mg/mL, respectively). The present study scientifically validates the folk use of Chrozophora tinctoria in the management of gastrointestinal diseases such as constipation. Further work is needed to isolate the phytochemicals that act as diarrheal agents in Chrozophora tinctoria.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMolecules
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 5 2022

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