Experimental Investigation of the Compression Ignition Process of High Reactivity Gasoline Fuels and E10 Certification Gasoline using a High-Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Injector

Jiongxun Zhang, Meng Tang, William Atkinson, Henry Schmidt, Seong Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber, Tom Tzanetakis, Jaeheon Sim

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

13 Scopus citations


Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) technology shows the potential to obtain high thermal efficiencies while maintaining low soot and NOx emissions in light-duty engine applications. Recent experimental studies and numerical simulations have indicated that high reactivity gasoline-like fuels can further enable the benefits of GCI combustion. However, there is limited empirical data in the literature studying the gasoline compression ignition process at relevant in-cylinder conditions, which are required for further optimizing combustion system designs. This study investigates the temporal and spatial evolution of the compression ignition process of various high reactivity gasoline fuels with research octane numbers (RON) of 71, 74 and 82, as well as a conventional RON 97 E10 gasoline fuel. A ten-hole prototype gasoline injector specifically designed for GCI applications capable of injection pressures up to 450 bar was used. Vapor and liquid penetration from high speed optical visualizations, as well as combustion measurement were studied in an optically accessible constant volume spray and combustion chamber. Near simultaneous shadowgraph and Mie scattering images were captured to investigate the spray characteristics. OH∗ chemiluminescence and natural luminosity images were recorded simultaneously to characterize the ignition process through two high-speed cameras. The experiments were conducted under a wide range of ambient charge gas conditions, including temperatures from 900 to 1200 Kelvin, charge gas pressures from 50 to 100 bar, oxygen levels from 10-21% to represent 0-50% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels. The fuel was injected at 300 and 450 bar injection pressure. Results show that vapor penetration of the E10 and high reactivity gasoline fuels are similar, and the liquid penetration is related to the fuel density. With the OH∗ chemiluminescence images analysis, the ignition delay decreases, and the flame lift-off length moves upstream towards the injector tip with increasing ambient temperature, increasing charge gas pressure, increasing cetane number and decreasing EGR level. A gasoline ignition delay correlation and a lift-off length correlation considering the charge gas conditions and the fuel properties have been achieved.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSAE Technical Paper Series
PublisherSAE International
StatePublished - Apr 14 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-06-30
Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Saudi Aramco and the King Abdullah University Science and Technology (KAUST) for providing support for this study as part of the FUELCOM-II research program.
This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Pollution
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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