Exact BER computation of generalized hierarchical PSK constellations

Pavan Kumar Vitthaladevuni*, Mohamed Slim Alouini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


We obtain in this paper generic expression in M for the exact bit-error rate of the generalized hierarchical 2/4/⋯/M-phase-shift keyed constellations over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and fading channels. For the AWGN case, these expressions are in the form of a weighted sum of Pawula F-functions and are solely dependent on the constellation size M, the carrier-to-noise ratio, and a constellation parameter which controls the relative message importance. The mathematical expressions are illustrated with some select numerical examples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2030-2037
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Digital broadcasting
  • Embedded modulations
  • Exact bit-error rate (BER) computation
  • Fading channels
  • Gray mapping
  • Hierarchical constellations
  • Multiresolution transmission
  • Phase-shift keyed (PSK) constellations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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